Examples of Non-biological Natural Resources – Natural resources, or SDA for short, are everything that is produced by nature and can be used by humans to meet their needs. Based on the type, natural resources are divided into two, namely biological or biotic natural resources and non-biological or abiotic natural resources. Biological natural resources or biotic natural resources are everything produced by living things, such as plants and animals. Meanwhile, non-biological natural resources or abiotic natural resources are the opposite of biological natural resources. If living natural resources are produced from living things, non-biological natural resources are not produced from living things. Biological natural resources are produced from natural processes in life, without any element of renewal or preservation. Here are kinds, examples,
The following is a book on natural resource law in Indonesia which regulates how to use and utilize natural resources in Indonesia.
Differences in Biological Natural Resources and Non-Biological Resources
The definition of biological natural resources is a natural resource that comes from living things (biotic). While non-biological natural resources are natural resources from non-living things (abiotic).
Types and Examples of Non-Biological Natural Resources
Non-biological natural resources can be in the form of fossil resources, land resources, water resources, mineral resources, solar resources, and wind resources.
1. Fossil Resources
Fossil resources, also known as fossil fuels, are natural resources that contain hydrocarbons. These natural resources are produced by fossils of animals, plants, marine microorganisms, and other organisms that died millions of years ago. These fossils produce natural resources in the form of coal, natural gas, and oil.
A more in-depth discussion of fossils and how fossils are formed on earth to become natural resources through the book Why? Fossils with various interesting illustrations that can help Grameds understand the information.
Coal is the largest fossil resource in the world, which exceeds oil. Coal is used as a power plant, which is the main source of energy in human life. The coal management process can pollute the soil, water, and air because it is carried out by clearing forests for mining excavations. Coal is the dirtiest fuel because it produces a lot of black carbon particles. These particles can interfere with breathing if inhaled by humans.
The following is a book on coal utilization technology in Indonesia.
Petroleum is the raw material for the manufacture of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, asphalt, candles, and avtur. Petroleum is a fuel that is widely used by humans. Types of petroleum can be divided into two, namely light crude oil and heavy crude oil . Light crude oil or petroleum is crude oil that contains hydrocarbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur compounds. This oil is removed from the earth through the drilling process. After drilling, oil is pumped up and flows through pipes. Meanwhile, heavy crude oilis an oil that is miscible with water and contains a lot of sulfur. This oil is contained in rocks or oil sands. The process of removing this oil is done by digging soil and sand using heavy equipment. Oil management is done by mixing rock and oil sands with hot water and steam. After that, the bitumen contained in the rocks and oil sands is converted into crude oil and then processed in oil refineries. Petroleum can be used as vehicle fuel, raw material for oil stoves, and materials for asphalt roads.
3) Natural Gas
Natural gas or natural gas is a gas formed from ethane, butane, methane, and propane. In addition to slowly forming on the earth’s surface, natural gas can also be formed from the management of natural gas. Natural gas is released through a drilling process to form a well which is then given a pipe to drain the gas. Pipes used to deliver gas have a length of up to hundreds of kilometers. Natural gas will be processed into LPG ( liquefied petroleum gas ) and LNG ( liquefied natural gas ). Both gases are used to turn on the stove or heater.
2. Soil Resources
Soil is one of the parts that make up the earth’s surface. Land is a non-biological natural resource that is widely used to meet the needs of human life. Some of the benefits of land, namely as a source of biodiversity, as a supporter of agricultural and plantation production, as a place of activity for living things, as building materials, as well as water absorption and clean water providers.
Soil is produced from the weathering of rocks assisted by various organisms. Soil contains organic matter, gases, minerals, air, water, and a wide variety of organisms. The quality or level of soil fertility will greatly affect the development of plants. Soil types can be divided into three, namely clay, silt and sand .
1) Clay (Clay)
Clay soil is soil produced from a combination of clay, sandy soil, and silt. This type of soil is suitable for use as plantation land. Soil consisting of fine particles has a sticky texture and does not contain much organic matter. However, compared to other types of soil, this soil has more nutrients because it can retain moisture well.
2) Mud Land (silt)
Mud soil has medium-sized particles. These particles are much smaller than those of sandy soils, but larger than those of clay soils. Mud mud soil is also quite good at holding water. This type of soil is commonly used for agricultural land, to increase soil fertility.
3) Sandy Land (sand)
The content of nutrients or nutrients in this soil is very low so it is not suitable for planting plants. This type of soil also has poor water holding capacity, which makes it difficult for plant roots to absorb water which can cause plants to die. However, this sandy soil also has advantages, namely good for drainage systems.
3. Water Resources
Water is the main need that supports the survival of every living thing. The need for water continues to increase along with the development of human life.
Water is used in almost every human activity, such as household activities, industrial activities, and agricultural activities. In household activities, water is used for cooking, washing, and bathing. With the importance of this natural resource, its management becomes a matter of great concern, as discussed in the book Reform of Water Resources Management.
In industrial activities, water can be used as a basic material as well as a supporting material in the manufacture of a product. In agricultural activities, water is used to water or irrigate rice fields. In addition, water is also used to generate electricity as an alternative to petroleum.
The energy produced by water also tends to be non-polluting so that it can reduce environmental pollution. In addition to the abundance of excess water, water can also cause problems. Too much or too much water can cause catastrophic flooding and too little or too little water can cause drought. To avoid this, it is necessary to make various efforts to maintain water balance. Several efforts can be made, namely reforestation, reforestation of urban areas, and making infiltration wells.
4. Mineral Resources
Mineral resources are resources resulting from the mining process. Mineral resources have various benefits for human life, such as raw materials for jewelry, raw materials for making household appliances, and raw materials for making machinery. Mineral resources have high economic value. However, because of the limited number, the utilization of mineral resources must be carried out efficiently.
Mineral resources are grouped into two, namely metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals.
1) Metal Mineral Resources
a. Base Metal
The base metals consist of zinc, copper, tin, lead, and mercury.
b. Precious metal
Precious metals consist of platinum, silver and gold.
c. Ferrous Metal and Iron Guide
Ferrous and ferrous guide metals consist of iron, manganese, tungsten, vanadium, titan, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, and chromite.
d. Light Metals and Rare Metals
Light and rare metals include aluminum, uranium, indium, beryllium, magnesium, cadmium, bauxite, gallium, tantalum-nibium, yttrium, zirconium, thorium, lithium, and rare earth metals.
2) Non-Metal Mineral Resources
a. Building material
Building materials consist of marble, andesite, ashtray, tras, dacite, granite, basalt, diabase, diorite, granodiorite, peridotite, sirtu, and gabbro peridotite,
b. Industrial Minerals
Industrial minerals consist of potassium rock, zircon, limestone, sulfur, bentonite, quartzite, diatomea, dolomite, pumice, phosphate, gypsum, calcite, gypsum, calcite, ocher, quartz sand, serpentine, talc, travertine, barite, ultrabase, iodine, zeolite , and quartz.
c. Ceramic Material
Ceramic materials consist of toseki, feldspar, pearlite, ball/bond clay, kaolin, trachite clay, obsidian, pyrophyllite, and magnesite.
d. Precious Stones and Decorative Stones
Precious stones and ornamental stones consist of amethyst, diamond, opal, jasper, ornamental stone, coral, chalcedony, onyx, topaz, chert, garnet, and prehnit.
The following is a book on mining practice and theory in Indonesia.
5. Solar Resources
The sun is the center of the solar system which is the main source of energy for life on earth. The sun produces two types of energy, namely light energy and heat energy. Both of these energies can be used to support the survival of living things. For plants, solar resources are useful in photosynthetic activities. For humans, solar resources can be used to produce electrical energy. Electrical energy produced by solar resources has the least negative impact compared to the use of other energy sources. The use of solar electricity does not produce greenhouse gases and can prevent environmental pollution.
Here is a book about solar power generation systems.
6. Wind Resources
Wind is a resource that moves air. The function of the wind as an air mover has various benefits for human life. Wind is currently widely used as a source of electrical energy. Wind can produce electrical energy by using turbines which are generally placed in highlands with a height of more than 30 meters. Sources of electrical energy produced from wind are more environmentally friendly because they are generally cleaner than residues produced by other fuels. In addition, the wind also has various other benefits, including moving clouds, making the air temperature cooler, helping pollinate plants, helping to move fishing boats, driving wheat grinding machines, driving irrigation pumps, and others.